Was American occupation good or bad for the Philippines?
The debate is always shared around me. No clear cut answer is given. What are your thoughts on Americas influence on Philippines?
USA inadverently aquired Philippines as a by-product of the Spanish American War. Control by filipinos was established quickly, and within 10 years filipinos were administering and electing almost all leadership. The 1946 independance date was ceremonial, and the Philippines recognizes the earlier 1898 date as thier independance date.
Considering the often violent conflict that remains between differing factions within the Philippines, we should reason that the USA’s early ‘occupation’ to establish a stable democratic government was preferable to the alternative, which may have stunted Philippines development by decades or more of internal conflict, or worse yet, made the Philippines too weak to resist occupation by Asian powers.
Here is a post ‘occupation’ timeline that focuses on US – RP relations in the context of the disputed Spratly Isands.
1951 Mutual Defense Treaty Between the Republic of the Philippines and the United States of America was signed and ratified.
1956 Filipino Tomas Cloma proclaimed the founding of a new Kalayaan State in unoccupied Spratly Islands,
1968 The Geology and Mineral Resources Ministry of the People’s Republic of China (PRC) estimated that the Spratly area holds oil and natural gas reserves of 17.7 billion tons, making it the world’s fourth largest reserve.
1968 Philippines troops are posted on three islands for protecting Kalayaan citizens
1971 Philippines law claims annexation of the 53 island group known as Kalayaan,
1973 Paris Peace Accords, the United States of America significantly reduced and eventually cuts off military supplies to Vietnam.
1973 Philippines withdraws from Vietnam, peak troop participation was over 2000.
1974 Sea Battle between PROC and Vietnam involving 8 warships. PROC siezes all the Paracel Islands occupied by a Vietnamese garrison after 1954 Geneva convention dissolving French Colonial rule. 1975 USA completes the evacuation from Vietnam.
1975 Vietnam siezes the 5th largest Spratly Island by luring away the entire Philippines Army garrison to a party on another nearby island hosted by Vietnamese prostitutes.
1977 Philippine Troops attempting to occupy Itu Aba repelled by ROC (Tiawan) troops
1986 EDSA Revolution ousts President Marcos; Corazon Aquino becomes president
1987 The People’s Republic of China (PROC) conducted naval patrols in the Spratly Islands and established a permanent base.
1988 Naval battle in which PRC forces prevailed and won control over some Spratly reefs after sinking two Vietnamese gunboats, seventy people killed.
1989 – RP Air Force Officers join anti-government rebels in coup attempt. USA reported 1 US fighter plane from Clark Air Base scrambled to assist the Aquino government.
1991 – Iraq. Persian Gulf War America attacked Iraqi forces and military targets in Iraq and Kuwait, with a coalition of allies and UN Security Council resolutions.
1991Indonesia holds the first annual South China Sea Workshop of the six claimants to the Spratly Islands to find peaceful solutions to the dispute. Malaysia develops a reef for tourism.
1991 Philippines Senate rejects renewal of U.S military bases in the Philippines
1992 Chinese law states an exclusive claim to the South China Sea and all the Islands.
1992 Philippine general election, 1992 (Fidel V. Ramos is elected)
1992 ASEAN nations and China call for restraint in pursuit of territorial claims in Spratly .
1993 U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), estimated oil reserves in South China Sea at 28 billion barrels.
1994 Exxon signs a US$35 billion deal to develop gas fields north of Indonesia’s Natuna Island, located in the southernmost region of the South China Sea, between Malaysia and Borneo, territory which is also claimed by China.
1995 Indonesia expresses concern over Chinese maps claiming sovereignty over part of the huge Natuna gas fields to the south of the Spratly Islands.
1995 The Philippines’s armed forces seize Chinese fishing boats and crew, and destroy Chinese-constructed concrete markers discovered on Mischief Reef, located within 200 kilometres of Palawan Island.
1995 Taiwanese naval mission of armed patrol boats to the Spratly Islands is called off midway to its destination.
1998 Philippine general election, 1998 (Joseph Estrada is elected)
1998 – US-led bombing campaign against Iraq. Operation Desert Fox
1998 The Philippines’s armed forces discover more heavy Chinese-construction sites on Mischief Reef, within 200 kilometres of Palawan Island, in the Philippines
1999 Visting Forces Agreement (VFA) with USA ratifiied by the Philippine Senate
1999 – 2001 East Timor. East Timor Independence Limited US military forces deployed with mostly RP troops under UN to restore peace to East Timor
2002 – USA “combat-equipped and combat support forces” deployed to the Philippines to train with Philippines’ Armed Forces in enhancing counterterrorist capabilities.
2002 Agreement by all claimants to Spratly Islands to refrain from actions that heighten tensions, including: military build-up, construction, or occupation of uninhabited features.
2008 US Marine is convicted of date rape in highly publicized case used by leftist marxist feminists (whores) to mobilize protests of VFA and the US military presence in Philippines.
2009 China sends its largest naval patrol ship to the Spratly Islands, saying it was not a violation of the 2002 agreement to police the South China Seas as it’s exclusive economic zone.
2009 US Marine is aquitted on appeal, after accuser reconsiders her date rape allegation. US Navy Aircraft Carrier Fleet visits Manila Bay for the first time since closure of Subic in 1981.
2009 RP Sentate advises Philippines President to renegotiate or terminate the VFA due to pressure from radical feminists, leftists, marxists, and anti-government groups.
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