In order to know why a particular phenomenon occurs, it is essential to know the basics of it. Only then it is easy to study about every detail in-depth. That applies to the topic of emigration also. Emigration is a very common thing in today’s world. One can find people moving out of their native country to another country in search of better prospects. They may stay in the new country for a few years and then return home or become permanently settled there. Before exploring this issue, let US get to know some facts about it.
Emigration – the basics
As Wikipedia puts it, ‘Emigration is the act of leaving one’s country or region to settle in another.’ It differs from immigration only from the perspective of the country of origin. Most typical, yet common reasons for people to emigrate are either based on religious, political or economic reasons. There are also many who emigrate just for the sake of getting married or to have a different experience or for a change of a climate. Reasons may seem silly, childish or even unbelievable but then they do form the basis for many people’s emigration.
People began to emigrate largely in the 18, 19 and 20th centuries itself. At these times it was mainly because of their economic conditions. Many poor families move from Europe to other countries like the US, Canada, Brazil, Argentina, Australia and New Zealand.
Reasons for emigration
Even though people emigrate just to get a new experience or a change in their life, the main reasons would be to explore options for a better livelihood. They are not satisfied with their present life or with the working conditions in their motherland. While trying to establish the reasons for this migration, many scholars have categorized the reasons as based on the individual, familial and the structural- institutional. While the first one is based on a single individual’s expectations and demands, the familial situation is based on the decision of the entire family to enhance their living conditions. The last one is based on the economic, social or political conditions of that particular country from which people are migrating.
The factors that influence emigration can be divided into two – pull and push factors. Classifying the reasons under these two categories, will help US to understand, how both positive and negative circumstances act as stimulants to emigrate.
They are those factors that act as attractive forces that are drawing people to a particular country.
• Excellent job opportunities with higher pay (which in-turn will improve the livelihood of the entire family)
• Acquiring places to indulge in farming
• Assured security to life with better welfare schemes
• Better access to quality education
• Presence of relatives and friends who have already established a life there
• Better opportunities for acquiring farms for self and children.
• Political freedom in that country
• Culture, customs and traditions of that country
• Harsh conditions of famine, drought or epidemics
• Oppressive political crisis which poses a serious threat to human life
• Deprived of basic rights and amenities
• Insufficient employment opportunities
• Shortage of space which makes farming difficult
• Military crisis
• Restrictions on the practice of a particular religion
Among all the listed reasons, the most common ones for people to emigrate out of their country are for high paying jobs, facing a threat to their lives in their native countries and to provide better living conditions to their family.